References RFC 001-RFC 3261

A note on Internet Request for Comments (RFCs): Copies of Internet RFCs are maintained at multiple sites. The RFC URLs below all point into the RFC archive at the Information Sciences Institute (ISI), maintained at the RFC Editor of the Internet Society (the body that oversees the RFCs). Other RFC sites include, (located in France), and (located in Japan). Internet RFCs can be updated or obsoleted by later RFCs. We encourage you to check the sites listed above for the most up-to-date information. The RFC search facility at ISI,, will allow you to search for an RFC and show updates to that RFC.

[RFC 001] S. Crocker, “Host Software,” RFC 001 (the very first RFC!).

[RFC 768] J. Postel, “User Datagram Protocol,” RFC 768, Aug. 1980.

[RFC 789] E. Rosen, “Vulnerabilities of Network Control Protocols,” RFC 789.

[RFC 791] J. Postel, “Internet Protocol: DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification,” RFC 791, Sept. 1981.

[RFC 792] J. Postel, “Internet Control Message Protocol,” RFC 792, Sept. 1981.

[RFC 793] J. Postel, “Transmission Control Protocol,” RFC 793, Sept. 1981.

[RFC 801] J. Postel, “NCP/TCP Transition Plan,” RFC 801 Nov. 1981.

[RFC 821] J. Postel, “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,” RFC 821, Aug. 1982.

[RFC 821] J. Postel, “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,” RFC 821, August 1982, obsoleted by RFC 2821,

[RFC 822] D. H. Crocker, “Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages,” RFC 822, Aug. 1982.

[RFC 826] D. C. Plummer, “An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol-or-Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware,” RFC 826, Nov. 1982.

[RFC 854] J. Postel and J. Reynolds, “TELNET Protocol Specification,” RFC 854. May 1993.

[RFC 904] D. Mills, “Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification,” RFC 904, Apr. 1984.

[RFC 950] J. Mogul, J. Postel, “Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure,” RFC 950, Aug. 1985.

[RFC 959] J. Postel and J. Reynolds, “File Transfer Protocol (FTP),” RFC 959, Oct. 1985.

[RFC 977] B. Kantor and P. Lapsley, “Network News Transfer Protocol,” RFC 977, Feb. 1986.

[RFC 1028] J. Davin, J.D. Case, M. Fedor, M. Schoffstall, “A Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol,” RFC 1028, Nov. 1987,

[RFC 1034] P. V. Mockapetris, “Domain Names-Concepts and Facilities,” RFC 1034, Nov. 1987.

[RFC 1035] P. Mockapetris, “Domain Names-Implementation and Specification,” RFC 1035, Nov. 1987.

[RFC 1058] C. L. Hendrick, “Routing Information Protocol,” RFC 1058, June 1988.

[RFC 1071] R. Braden, D. Borman, and C. Partridge, “Computing the Internet Checksum,” RFC 1071, Sept. 1988.

[RFC 1075] D. Waitzman, C. Partridge ,S. Deering, “Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol,” RFC 1075, Nov. 1988. A more up-to-date “work-in-progress” defines a version 3 of DVMRP: T. Pusateri, “Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol,” available via

[RFC 1112] S. Deering, “Host Extension for IP Multicasting,” RFC 1112, Aug. 1989.

[RFC 1122] R. Braden, “Requirements for Internet Hosts-Communication Layers,” RFC 1122, Oct. 1989.

[RFC 1180] T. Socolofsky and C. Kale, “A TCP/IP Tutorial,” RFC 1180, Jan. 1991.

[RFC 1213] K. McCloghrie, M. T. Rose, “Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II,” RFC 1213, Mar. 1991.

[RFC 1256] S. Deering, “ICMP Router Discovery Messages,” RFC 1256, Sept. 1991.

[RFC 1320] R. Rivest, “The MD4 Message-Digest Algorithm,” RFC 1320, Apr. 1992.

[RFC 1321] R. Rivest, “The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm,” RFC 1321, Apr. 1992.

[RFC 1323] V. Jacobson, S. Braden, and D. Borman, “TCP Extensions for High Performance,” RFC 1323, May 1992.

[RFC 1332] G. McGregor, “The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP),” RFC 1332, May 1992.

[RFC 1378] B. Parker, “The PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP),” RFC 1378, Nov. 1992.

[RFC 1422] S. Kent, “Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part II: Certificate-Based Key Management,” RFC 1422, Feb. 1993.

[RFC 1510] J. Kohl, C. Neuman, “The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5),” RFC 1510, Sept. 1993.

[RFC 1519] V. Fuller, T. Li, J. Yu, K. Varadhan, “Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR),” RFC 1519, Sept. 1993.

[RFC 1542] W. Wimer, “Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol,” RFC 1542, Oct. 1993.

[RFC 1547] D. Perkins, “Requirements for an Internet Standard Point-to-Point Protocol,” RFC 1547, Dec. 1993.

[RFC 1584] J. Moy, “Multicast Extensions to OSPF,” RFC 1584, Mar. 1994.

[RFC 1631] K. Egevang, P. Francis, “The IP Network Address Translator (NAT),” RFC 1631, May 1994.

[RFC 1633] R. Braden, D. Clark, S. Shenker, “Integrated Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview,” RFC 1633, June 1994.

[RFC 1636] R. Braden, D. Clark, S. Crocker, C. Huitema, “Report of IAB Workshop on Security in the Internet Architecture,” RFC 1636, Nov. 1994.

[RFC 1661] W. Simpson (ed.), “The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP),” RFC 1661, July 1994.

[RFC 1662] W. Simpson (ed.), “PPP in HDLC-like framing,” RFC 1662, July 1994.

[RFC 1700] J. Reynolds and J. Postel, “Assigned Numbers,” RFC 1700, Oct. 1994. Obsoleted by RFC 3232.

[RFC 1730] M. Crispin, “Internet Message Access Protocol-Version 4,” RFC 1730, Dec. 1994. Obsoleted by RFC 2060.

[RFC 1752] S. Bradner, A. Mankin, “The Recommendations for the IP Next Generation Protocol,” RFC 1752, Jan. 1995.

[RFC 1760] N. Haller, “The S/KEY One-Time Password System,” RFC 1760, Feb. 1995.

[RFC 1762] S. Senum, “The PPP DECnet Phase IV Control Protocol (DNCP),” RFC 1762, Mar. 1995.

[RFC 1771] Y. Rekhter and T. Li, “A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4),” RFC 1771, Mar. 1995.

[RFC 1772] Y. Rekhter and P. Gross, “Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet,” RFC 1772, Mar. 1995.

[RFC 1773] P. Traina, “Experience with the BGP-4 protocol,” RFC 1773, Mar. 1995.

[RFC 1779] S. Kille, “A String Representation of Distinguished Names,” RFC 1779, Mar. 1995. Obsoleted by RFC 2253.

[RFC 1810] J. Touch, “Report on MD5 Performance,” RFC 1810, June 1995.

[RFC 1884] R. Hinden, S. Deering, “IP Version 6: addressing architecture,” RFC 1884, Dec.1995. Obsoleted by RFC 2373.

[RFC 1889] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, “RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications,” RFC 1889, Jan. 1996.

[RFC 1905] J. Case, K. McCloghrie, M. Rose, S. Waldbusser, “Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2),” RFC 1905, Jan. 1996.

[RFC 1906] J. Case, K. McCloghrie, M. Rose, S. Waldbusser, “Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2),” RFC 1906, Jan. 1996.

[RFC 1907] J. Case, K. McCloghrie, M. Rose, and S. Waldbusser, “Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2),” RFC 1907, Jan. 1996.

[RFC 1911] G. Vaudreuil, “Voice Profile for Internet Mail,” RFC 1911, Feb. 1996. Obsoleted by RFC 2421.

[RFC 1939] J. Myers and M. Rose, “Post Office Protocol-Version 3,” RFC 1939, May 1996.

[RFC 1945] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, H. Frystyk, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol- HTTP/1.0,” RFC 1945, May 1996

[RFC 2001] W. Stevens, “TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast Retransmit, and Fast Recovery Algorithms,” RFC 2001, Jan. 1997. Obsoleted by RFC 2581.

[RFC 2002] C. Perkins, “IP Mobility Support,” RFC 2002, Oct. 1996.

[RFC 2003] C. Perkins, “IP Encapsulation within IP,” RFC 2003, Oct. 1996.

[RFC 2004] C. Perkins, “Minimal Encapsulation within IP,” RFC 2004, Oct. 1996.

[RFC 2011] K. McCloghrie, “SNMPv2 Management Information Base for the Internet Protocol using SMIv2,” RFC 2011, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2012] K. McCloghrie, “SNMPv2 Management Information Base for the Transmission Control Protocol using SMIv2,” RFC 2012, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2013] K. McCloghrie, “SNMPv2 Management Information Base for the User Datagram Protocol using SMIv2,” RFC 2013, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2018] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, “TCP Selective Acknowledgment Options,” RFC 2018, Oct. 1996.

[RFC 2021] S. Waldbusser, “Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base Version 2 using SMIv2,” RFC 2021, Jan. 1997.

[RFC 2045] N. Freed, N. Borenstein, “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies,” RFC 2045, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2046] N. Freed, N. Borenstein, “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types,” RFC 2046, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2048] N. Freed, J. Klensin, J. Postel “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures,” RFC 2048, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2050] K. Hubbard, M. Kosters, D. Conrad, D. Karrenberg, J. Postel, “Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines,” RFC 2050, Nov. 1996.

[RFC 2060] R. Crispin, “Internet Message Access Protocol-Version 4rev1,” RFC 2060, Dec. 1996.

[RFC 2068] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, and T. Berners-Lee, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol-HTTP/1.1,” RFC 2068, Jan. 1997. Obsoleted by RFC 2616.

[RFC 2104] H. Krawczyk, M. Bellare, R. Canetti, “HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication,” RFC 2104, Feb. 1997.

[RFC 2109] D. Kristol and L. Montulli, “HTTP State Management Mechanism,” RFC 2109, Feb. 1997.

[RFC 2131] R. Droms, “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,” RFC 2131, Mar. 1997.

[RFC 2136] P. Vixie, S. Thomson,Y. Rekhter, and J. Bound, “Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System,” RFC 2136, Apr. 1997.

[RFC 2153] W. Simpson, “PPP Vendor Extensions,” RFC 2153, May 1997.

[RFC 2186] K. Claffy and D. Wessels, “Internet Caching Protocol (ICP), version 2,” RFC 2186, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2189] A. Ballardie, “Core Based Trees (CBT version 2) Multicast Routing: Protocol Specification,” RFC 2189, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2201] A. Ballardie, “Core Based Trees (CBT) Multicast Routing Architecture,” RFC 2201, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2205] R. Braden, Ed., L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S. Jamin, “Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)–Version 1 Functional Specification,” RFC 2205, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2210] J. Wroclawski, “The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services,” RFC 2210, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2211] J. Wroclawski, “Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element Service,” RFC 2211, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2212] S. Shenker, C. Partridge, R. Guerin, “Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service,” RFC 2212, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2215] S. Shenker, J. Wroclawski, “General Characterization Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements,” RFC 2215, Sept. 1997.

[RFC 2225] M Laubach, J. Halpern, “Classical UP and ARP over ATM,” RFC 2225, April 1998.

[RFC 2236] R. Fenner, “Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2,” RFC 2236, Nov. 1997.

[RFC 2246] T. Dierks and C. Allen, “The TLS Protocol,” RFC 2246, Jan. 1998.

[RFC 2253] M. Wahl, S. Kille, T. Howes, “Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3),” RFC 2253, Dec. 1997.

[RFC 2326] H. Schulzrinne, A. Rao, R. Lanphier, “Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP),” RFC 2326, Apr. 1998.

[RFC 2328] J. Moy, “OSPF Version 2,” RFC 2328, Apr. 1998.

[RFC 2362] D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, A. Helmy, D. Thaler, S. Deering, M. Handley, V. Jacobson, C. Liu, P. Sharma, L. Wei, “Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification,” RFC 2362, June 1998.

[RFC 2373] R. Hinden, S. Deering, “IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture,” RFC 2373, July 1998.

[RFC 2400] J. Postel, J. Reynolds, “Internet Official Protocol Standards,” RFC 2400, Sept. 1998. Obsoleted by RFC 2500.

[RFC 2401] S. Kent, R. Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,” RFC 2401, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2402] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, “IP Authentication Header,” RFC 2402, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2405] C. Madson and N. Doraswamy, “The ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm with Explicit IV,” RFC 2405, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2406] S. Kent, R. Atkinson, “IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP),” RFC 2406, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2407] D. Piper, “The Internet IP Security Domain of Interpretation for ISAKMP,” RFC 2407, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2408] D. Maughan, M. Schertler, M. Schneider, J. Turner, “Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP),” RFC 2408, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2409] D. Harkins, D. Carrel, “The Internet Key Exchange (IKE),” RFC 2409, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, R. Glenn, “IP Security Document Road Map,” RFC 2411, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2420] H. Kummert, “The PPP Triple-DES Encryption Protocol (3DESE),” RFC 2420, Sept. 1998.

[RFC 2421] G. Vaudreuil, G. Parsons, “Voice Profile for Internet Mail-version 2,” RFC 2421, Sept. 1998.

[RFC 2427] C. Brown, A. Malis, “Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay,” RFC 2427, Sept. 1998.

[RFC 2437] B. Kaliski, J. Staddon, “PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications, Version 2,” RFC 2437, Oct. 1998.

[RFC 2453] G. Malkin, “RIP Version 2,” RFC 2453, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2453] G. Malkin, “RIP Version 2,” RFC 2453, Nov. 1998.

[RFC 2460] S. Deering, R. Hinden, “Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification,” RFC 2460, Dec. 1998.

[RFC 2463] A. Conta, S. Deering, “Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6),” RFC 2463, Dec. 1998.

[RFC 2474] K. Nicols, S. Blake, F. Baker, D. Black, “Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers,” RFC 2474, Dec. 1998.

[RFC 2475] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang,W. Weiss, “An Architecture for Differentiated Services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

[RFC 2481] K. K. Ramakrishnan and S. Floyd, “A Proposal to Add Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP,” RFC 2481, Jan. 1999.

[RFC 2500] J. Reynolds, R. Braden, “Internet Official Protocol Standards,” RFC 2500, June 1999.

[RFC 2570] J. Case, R. Mundy, D. Partain, B. Stewart, “Introduction to Version 3 of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework,” RFC 2570, May 1999.

[RFC 2571] B. Wijnen, D. Harrington, R. Presuhn, “An Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks,” RFC 2571, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2574] U. Blumenthal, B. Wijnen, “User-based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3),” RFC 2574, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2575] B. Wijnen, R. Presuhn, K. McCloghrie, “View-based Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),” RFC 2575, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2578] K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, “Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2),” RFC 2578, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2579] K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, “Textual Conventions for SMIv2,” RFC 2579, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2580] K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, “Conformance Statements for SMIv2,” RFC 2580, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2581] M. Allman, V. Paxson, W. Stevens, ” TCP Congestion Control,” RFC 2581, Apr. 1999.

[RFC 2582] S. Floyd, T. Henderson, “The New Reno Modification to TCP’s Fast Recovery Algorithm,” RFC 2582, April 1999.

[RFC 2597] J. Heinanen, F. Baker, W. Weiss, J. Wroclawski, “Assured Forwarding PHB roup,” RFC 2597, June 1999.

[RFC 2598] V. Jacobson, K. Nichols, K. Poduri, “An Expedited Forwarding PHB,” RFC 598, June 1999.

[RFC 2616] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee, R. Feilding, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol-HTTP/1.1,” RFC 2616, June 1999.

[RFC 2638] K. Nichols, V. Jacobson, L. Zhang, “A Two-bit Differentiated Services Architecture for the Internet,” RFC 2638, July 1999.

[RFC 2644] D. Senie, “Changing the Default for Directed Broadcasts in Router,” RFC 2644, Aug. 1999.

[RFC 2663] P. Srisuresh, M. Holdrege, “IP Network Address Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations,” RFC 2663, Aug. 1999,

[RFC 2715] D. Thaler, “Interoperability Rules for Multicast Routing Protocols,” RFC 2715, Oct. 1999.

[RFC 2733] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, “An RTP Payload Format for Generic Forward Error Correction,” RFC 2733, Dec. 1999.

[RFC 2821] J. Klensin, ed., “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,” RFC 2821, April 2001,

[RFC 2827] P. Ferguson, D. Senie, “Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which Employ IP Source Address Spoofing,” RFC 2827. May 2000.

[RFC 2893] R. Gilligan, E. Nordmark “Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers,” RFC 2893, Aug. 2000.

[RFC 2988] V. Paxson, M. Allman, “Computing TCP’s Retransmission Timer,” RFC 2988, Nov., 2000.

[RFC 3000] J. Reynolds, R. Braden, S. Ginoza, L. Shiota, “Internet Official Protocol Standards,” RFC 3000, Nov. 2001,

[RFC 3022] P. Srisuresh, K. Egevang, “Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT),” RFC 3022, Jan. 2001,

[RFC 3052] M. Eder, S. Nag, “Service Management Architectures Issues and Review,” RFC 3052, Jan. 2001,

[RFC 3139] L. Sanchez, K. McCloghrie, J. Saperia, “Requirements for Configuration Management of IP-Based Networks, RFC 3139, June 2001,

[RFC 3220] C. Perkins, ed., “IP Mobility Support for IPv4,” RFC 3220, Jan. 2002,

[RFC 3232] J. Reynolds, “Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On-line Database,” RFC 3232, Jan. 2002,

[RFC 3246] B. Davie, A. Charny, J.C.R. Bennet, K. Benson, J.Y. Le Boudec, W. Courtney, S. Davari, V. Firoiu, D. Stiliadis, “An Expedited Forwarding PHB (Per-Hop Behavior),” RFC 3246, March 2002,

[RFC 3261] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Carmarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: Session Initiation Protocol,” RFC 3261, July 2002.

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